Students should read the lesson, and complete the worksheet. As an option, teachers may use the lesson as part of a classroom lesson plan. What if I told you that baseball was the best sport ever? Before we move on, do you know what a FACT is?
A series of studies have confirmed what was probably obvious from the beginning.
If we are to hope to attain the goal of "no child left behind," we must focus on creating a substantially larger number of effective, expert teachers.
Good teachers, effective teachers, manage to produce better achievement regardless of which curriculum materials, pedagogical approach, or reading program is selected. Instead, I am going to describe what the teaching of exemplary elementary teachers looks like and challenge school administrators to examine whether their daily practice and their longer-term planning is designed to foster such teaching.
In other words, I believe school administrators should be crafting policies that ensure that more effective teachers are created each year in their schools. These teachers were selected, primarily, from schools that enrolled substantial numbers of poor children and schools that reflected the racial, ethnic, and linguistic diversity of the nation.
In each case we spent at least ten full instructional days, and often more, observing, interviewing, and videotaping in each room. Two books, a number of articles, and related technical reports provide documentary details the books and articles are cited throughout and the technical reports, along with research summaries, can be found at http: We studied teachers found to be particularly effective in developing reading and writing proficiency.
Over the course of the study, however, it became clear that the teachers we were studying developed academic proficiencies well beyond higher reading and writing achievement test scores though the evidence we gathered did demonstrate that these teachers did produce significantly better standardized test performances as a matter of course.
The hundreds of days of classroom observation and the hundreds of interviews with teachers and students provide a clear portrayal of what good elementary teaching looks like.
Time These teachers had a "reading and writing vs. In typical classrooms, it is not unusual to find that kids read and write for as little as ten percent of the day 30 minutes of reading and writing activity in a minute, or five hour, school day.
Worse, in many classrooms, 20 minutes of actual reading across the school day Knapp, is a common event, which includes reading in science, social studies, math, and other subjects. Thus, less than ten percent of the day is actually spent reading and 90 percent or more of the time is spent doing stuff.
The issue is less stuff vs. When stuff dominates instructional time, warning flags should go up. This is true even when the activity, in some form, has been shown to be useful.
But three to five minutes of building background knowledge is probably enough; spending most of a 90 minute reading block on building background knowledge seems an unlikely strategy for improving reading proficiencies.
In less-effective classrooms, there is a lot of stuff going on for which no reliable evidence exists to support their use e. Extensive reading is critical to the development of reading proficiency Krashen ; Stanovich, Extensive practice provides the opportunity for students to consolidate the skills and strategies teachers often work so hard to develop.
The exemplary elementary teachers we studied recognized this critical aspect of instructional planning. Their students did more guided reading, more independent reading, more social studies and science reading than students in less-effective classrooms.
Texts If children are to read a lot throughout the school day, they will need a rich supply of books they can actually read. This seems a simple statement of fact.
But there also exists a large and potent research base supporting supplying children with books of appropriate complexity Allington, Simply put, students need enormous quantities of successful reading to become independent, proficient readers.
By successful reading, I mean reading experiences where students perform with a high level of reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. When a nine-year-old misses as few as two or three words in each one hundred running words of a text, the text may be too hard for effective practice.
That text may be appropriate for instructional purposes but developing readers need much more high-success reading than they need instructional difficulty reading. It is the high accuracy, fluent, and easily comprehended reading that provides the opportunities to integrate complex skills and strategies into an automatic, independent reading process.
The exemplary teachers we studied too often had to teach against the organizational grain. They rejected district plans that "required" all children be placed in the same textbook or tradebook and do the same worksheets on the same day.
They recognized such schemes for what they are: Truly anti-scientific, non-research-based fads designed more, it seems, as an attempt to exert administrative power than to produce high levels of student achievement. Some were lucky to work in "smart" organizations.
These organizations provided a rich and expansive supply of texts that supported children's learning across the school day multi-level texts available for social studies and science as well as for reading classes.
Organizations that knew that "one-size-fits-all" mandates contradicted virtually everything we have learned about effective teaching. While students of all achievement levels benefited from exemplary teaching, it was the lowest achievers who benefited most.
In these classrooms, lower-achieving students spent their days with books they could successfully read. This has not typically been the case in less effective classrooms Allington, • sense of audience • Writing is lifeless • No hint of the writer • Writing tends to be flat or stiff •Stereotypic, copied tone and voice • Voice may be.
In Daily Paragraph Practice, students focus on one weekly topic and write a daily paragraph using one of the four prompts. Each prompt represents a different type of writing--descriptive, persuasive, narrative, and expository--and is designed for upper elementary and middle school students.
The Purdue Writing Lab Purdue University students, faculty, and staff at our West Lafayette, IN campus may access this area for information on the award-winning Purdue Writing Lab. This area includes Writing Lab hours, services, and contact information. 5-POINT WRITER’S RUBRIC© , Education Northwest Page 3 VOICE The writer speaks directly to the reader in a way that is individual, compelling, and engaging. The writer crafts the writing with an awareness and respect for the. Student Scoring Rubric for a Well-developed Paragraph Score of 5 The student has mastered the skill of writing a well developed paragraph, and .
The Elements of Style: William Strunk, Jr. Asserting that one must first know the rules to break them, this classic reference book is a must-have for any student and conscientious writer. The Purdue Writing Lab Purdue University students, faculty, and staff at our West Lafayette, IN campus may access this area for information on the award-winning Purdue Writing Lab.
This area includes Writing Lab hours, services, and contact information. Pearson Prentice Hall and our other respected imprints provide educational materials, technologies, assessments and related services across the secondary curriculum. Time. These teachers had a "reading and writing vs.
stuff" ratio that was far better balanced than is typically found in elementary classrooms (Allington, ).