How are street gangs different from other criminal groups, such as organized crime groups, motorcycle gangs, ideology groups, and prison gangs? Some notable examples include the organized, collective drug trade, strong ties, and covert behavior among prison gangs, compared with less structured, more individualistic drug trade, highly fluctuating ties, and overt behavior among street gangs. Is the gang problem changing?
Race, ethnicity and identity in America: A Pew Research Center survey found that an estimated 6. By far the largest multiracial group is comprised of mixed Native American-Caucasian ancestry.
Beginning inthe U. The Census recorded some 9 million people of mixed-race status 2. The more recent Pew survey, then, suggests that the Census numbers may reflect an under-count. Even among sub-groups, such as Cuban-Americansthere are long-running, intra-community debates over ethnicity and race.
Below is a selection of research on race, ethnicity and identity in the United States. Urban Education, March Child Development, JulyVol. In a learning preferences task, participants determined the function of a novel object after watching adults white, black and Asian demonstrate its uses.
In the social preferences task, participants saw pairs of children white, black and Asian and chose with whom they most wanted to socially affiliate. Biracial children showed flexibility in racial identification during learning and social tasks. However, minority-primed biracial children were not more likely than monoracial minorities to socially affiliate with primed racial in-group members, indicating their in-group preferences are contextually based.
American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5, self-described African Americans, 8, Latinos, andEuropean Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans.
We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the U.
This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry.
Annual Review of Psychology, JulyVol. Unfortunately, the historical time necessary for these changes to take place means that definitive research on the impact of globalization necessarily will be slow in forthcoming. Adolescents from immigrant families, however, already experience the social and cultural shifts thought to typify globalization, and an analysis of their experiences could shed light on what to expect as existing national barriers become more permeable.
The value of flexibility in the face of great social and cultural change appears to be the dominant theme from research on immigrant youth, although that flexibility can be constrained by socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial stratification systems in host societies.
This review highlights the implications of these findings for what may lie ahead for teenagers as globalization continues to expand. Journal of Migration, October The Al Qaeda attacks clearly demarcate a period in which there was a structural increase in the intensity of U.
This stigmatization created an exogenous reduction in the expected payoff to acculturation relative to non-acculturation. Comparing — to —, there is a statistically significant and substantively large decrease in the unconditional and conditional probabilities that Arab and Islamic Americans will self-identify as white.
Social Psychology Quarterly, January Findings support social identity theory in showing that African Americans strongly identify with their group and view it very positively. In addition, those who identify more with their group and evaluate it more positively have greater self-esteem, greater mastery, and fewer depressive symptoms.
However, findings also support the internalized racism perspective by showing that when group evaluation is relatively negative, racial identification is related to lower mastery and higher depressive symptoms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, OctoberVol.Social scientists continue to study the impact of racial issues across diverse areas, from the way economic scarcity can influence perceptions; to issues of law enforcement and criminal justice; to the way race can shape the mechanisms of policy and politics.
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Citation Sampson, Robert J., and Janet L. Lauritsen. Racial and ethnic disparities in crime and criminal justice in the United States.
Crime and Justice Click here to download the Foundation Discussion Starters.. There are numerous reports available to provide in-depth data about various demographics, as well as additional rationale and ways to collect and use racial/ethnic data in relationship to foundation leadership and grantmaking.
In order to properly assess changes in the national gang problem over time, reliable indicators of the gang problem must be collected from a large and representative sample of law enforcement agencies across the United States.
The racial achievement gap in the United States refers to the educational disparities between various ethnic groups. It manifests itself in a variety of ways: among students, blacks and Hispanics are more likely to receive lower grades, score lower on standardized tests, drop out of high school, and they are less likely to enter and complete college than whites, who similarly score lower than.
Since the mids, the United States has pursued aggressive law enforcement strategies to curtail the use and distribution of illegal drugs. The costs and benefits of this national "war on drugs.